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Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery – Skull Base and Pituitary Tumors

Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery – Skull Base and Pituitary Tumors

Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center treats malignant and benign skull base and pituitary tumors with a multidisciplinary team approach using advanced technologies and techniques.

Make an appointment

To schedule a visit, call

717-531-3828 or


Skull Base and Pituitary Tumor Care

Skull base tumors and tumors affecting the pituitary gland can cause a wide range of serious symptoms and can be life-threatening, whether or not they are cancerous. Treating them takes a multidisciplinary approach with neurosurgeons, otolaryngologists, radiation oncologists, ophthalmologists and other professionals working together to create a plan that effectively treats the tumor and preserves function and quality of life.

Even noncancerous tumors affecting the skull base or pituitary gland usually need to be removed, as they can keep growing. Cancerous tumors can also spread to other parts of your body.

You’re in excellent hands — the team at Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center is skilled, experienced and committed to your health, safety and well-being. We’ll work with you to create a treatment plan specific to your tumor, health and other factors, and we’ll make sure you have all the support and services you need before, during and after treatment.

What is skull base surgery?

Skull base surgery, sometimes referred to as cranial base surgery, takes place at the bottom or base of the skull (cranial base) near the base of the brain cavity (also called the intracranial cavity). The anterior skull base separates the nose and sinuses from the brain and spinal fluid. The lateral skull base separates the ear, hearing and balance organs from the brain and spinal fluid. All along the skull base are critical structures, including blood vessels and cranial nerves that are essential to vision, facial movement, hearing, balance, swallowing and speech, among other functions. Skull base surgery is a highly specialized set of techniques to remove or repair lesions along this bony junction.

What is pituitary tumor (adenoma) surgery?

Pituitary tumor surgery is surgery to remove a tumor affecting the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is located in the skull below the brain and above the nasal passages. It is considered the “master gland,” as it releases hormones that regulate various functions in the body and stimulates other glands to secrete hormones. 

Most pituitary tumors are called adenomas and are noncancerous, but they can still cause significant health problems by causing the pituitary gland to produce too much or too little of certain hormones or by pressing on the optic nerve, which can lead to vision problems. A pituitary tumor can cause a wide range of symptoms, including headaches, infertility, erectile dysfunction and mood changes. To confirm the diagnosis, hormone testing of the blood and urine and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used.

The most common surgery for a pituitary tumor is called the transsphenoidal approach, done through the sphenoid sinus, a hollow space in the skull behind the nasal passages and below the brain. At the Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, it is most commonly done with an endoscope (a thin tube with a tiny camera) inserted through the nose. This way, no part of the brain is touched, and there is no visible scar.

For larger tumors, other surgical methods may be used. Our surgeons make every effort to minimize risk while fully removing the tumor and are highly experienced with all the surgical approaches. 

Make an appointment

To make an appointment with the experts in Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery at Penn State Health, call 800-243-1455 or 717-531-6822.

To make an appointment with the experts in Cosmetic Surgery, call 717-531-1386.

To make an appointment with the experts in Facial Nerve Disorders, call 717-531-1405.

Use our Find a Physician online tool to find contact information for specific ear, nose and throat doctors.

View Pediatric Otolaryngology Ear, Nose and Throat

Referring physicians

To transfer or refer a patient, please call 717-531-6822

Conditions we treat

Some of the conditions we treat include:


Depending on your initial symptoms, you will likely first see either a neurosurgeon, otolaryngologist (ear, nose and throat specialist or ENT), oculofacial plastic surgeon or ophthalmologist. A full and thorough discussion of your symptoms and physical examination will determine what tests are needed. Once a diagnosis is made, you will likely be scheduled to see other members of the team.

Testing may include:

  • Computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head and face
  • Image-guided technology during surgery that allows us to assess the tumor and its location relative to important structures such as nerves and blood vessels


Our team includes neurosurgeons, otologists, head and neck surgeons, oculofacial plastic surgeons and ophthalmologists. The team holds regular tumor board meetings to discuss the care and treatment for complex cases. These meetings bring together the surgical team as well as our radiologists, pathologists and oncologists to offer a comprehensive treatment plan. 

Depending on the location and type of your tumor and other factors, your plan may include:

  • Minimally invasive surgery using an endoscope (a very thin tube with a camera attached) passed through your nose and sinuses or through a tiny incision to get to the tumor
  • Radiosurgery using the Leksell Gamma Knife Icon delivering precise radiation therapy to treat tumors in the brain or elsewhere
  • Open surgery when minimally invasive surgery is not an option
  • Radiation or chemotherapy in addition to or instead of surgery
  • Reconstructive surgery


Our skull base surgery team is committed to improving skull base surgery and treatment for tumors in this delicate area. We’re active in research to make treatment as safe and effective as possible and to preserve functioning and quality of life. If we think you’ll benefit from participation in a clinical study, we’ll talk to you about whether it is right for you and what to expect. 

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